Archaeologists in western Turkey have unearthed a 1,800-year-old marble statue from the ancient ruins of Metropolis, known as ‘City of the Mother Goddess’ during the Roman period.
Earlier this month, the Turkish Culture and Tourism Ministry’s Department announced the discovery of the Roman-era statue, a robed female figure with her head and both arms missing.
The limbs were probably attached separately, according to Art News, though more work needs to be done to uncover the identity of the figure, researchers say.
The current excavation is a collaboration between the ministry and Celal Bayar University in Manisa, Turkey.
Metropolis (Greek for ‘mother state’) was a name bestowed on various cities, though this one is in Western Turkey’s Torbali municipality, about 25 miles from modern-day Izmir, the country’s third largest city.
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An 1,800-year-old sculpture of a robed woman was discovered in the ruins of Metropolis, an important trade post in West Turkey during the Roman Empire
Humans have occupied the land for at least 8,000 years, since the Neolithic period.
Artifacts indicate it was inhabited by Hittites during the Bronze Age (when it was known as Puranda), and was also active during the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods.
It was founded as Metropolis by the Greeks in roughly 300 BC and, despite its matriarchal name, was home to one of only two known temples devoted to Ares, the Greek god of War.
The sculpture dates to Metropolis’ Roman era—when the empire controlled Anatolia, the portion of Turkey located on the Asian continent.
Roman scientist-philosopher Ptolemy described the town as an important trading post in Lydia, about halfway along the ancient trade routes between Smyrna and Ephesus.
Though the figure’s head and arms are missing archaeologists say she is otherwise quite well-preserved
Field work began in the region in the 1970s, with excavations at Metropolis starting in the mid-1980s.
Since then, archaeologists have uncovered more than 11,000 artifacts, according to Art News, including coins, ceramics, class, ivory and metal objects.
The city ‘has a deep-rooted history dating back to prehistoric times,’ Celal Bayar University archaeologist Serdar Aybek told the Turkish-language Demirören News Agency in January, according to an English-language report in Arkeonews.
‘It has the fertility brought by the Küçük Menderes River. It is a region that has always been settled.’
Field work began in the region in the 1970s, with excavations at Metropolis starting in the mid-1980s. Pictured: Archaeologists carefully excavate the marble statue
Humans have occupied the land for at least 8,000 years, since the Neolithic period. The statue was made at a time when the Roman Empire controlled Anatolia, the portion of Turkey located on the Asian continent
The statue was found in the ruins of Metropolis, a trade center in Western Turkey during the Roman Era. Nicknamed the ‘City of the Mother Goddess’ by Romans, the remains of the city were opened to tourists in 2014
Notable finds include a Hellenistic marble seat of honor uncovered in the outdoor theater, elaborate Roman baths featuring sculptures of Zeus and Thyke, goddess of good fortune, as well as other Roman-era buildings including a sports complex, government building, various shops, galleries and public toilets.
More recently, four massive interlocking cisterns big enough to hold 600 tons of water were uncovered in the city’s acropolis last year.
The city of Metropolis, where the statue was unearthed, is located in the Torbali region of Turkey’s Izmir Province
It’s believed they were used during the Late Roman period and may have been helpful when the city was under siege by invaders.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, when the cisterns were no longer used to provide water, they became a garbage dump, with animal bones, broken ceramics and other detritus of daily life found on the site, according to the Daily Sabah.
The Turkish government opened the ‘City of the Mother Goddess’ to tourists in 2014.
ANATOLIA: WHEN DID ROME RULE TURKEY?
Roman legions invaded Anatolia, the portion of Turkey situated on the continent of Asia in the early 2nd century BC.
By 129 BC, the Roman republic claimed Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, as its own, establishing the city of Ephesus as its regional capital.
Roman rule continued in Turkey after the rise of the Roman Empire, with Constantine the Great inaugurating a new imperial capital at Constantinople (now Istanbul) in the 4th century AD.
But after the sacking of Rome in 410, a schism developed and Constantinople became the heart of the new Eastern Roman Empire, also known as Byzantium.
In 1453, Constantinople fell to Sultan Mehmed II and became part of the Ottomans empire.